Research Article

Online Teaching and Learning Under COVID-19 Pandemic; Perception of University Students in Ghana

Smart Asomaning Sarpong 1 2 3 * , Gabriel Dwomoh 1 , Ebenezer Kofi Boakye 1 , Irene Ofosua-Adjei 4
More Detail
1 Kumasi Technical University, GHANA2 Institute of Research, Innovation and Development - IRID, GHANA3 Centre for Social Science Research - CSSR, GHANA4 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, GHANA* Corresponding Author
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 3(1), 2022, e02203,
Published: 20 December 2021
OPEN ACCESS   1585 Views   3008 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, universities in Ghana instituted drastic interventions to support large-scale online teaching and learning. This study, therefore, examines student’s participation, level of satisfaction, and related challenges in teaching and learning delivery during the Coronavirus pandemic. The study also selects significant predictors of student’s e-learning perceptions. Data was collected via an online structured survey based on students from the Kumasi Technical University. In all 2000 complete responses were received and formed the basis for our analysis. The study results reveal that 197 (9.85% of the sample) were unable to fully participate due to challenges such as lack of access devices, unreliable internet connectivity, and inability to afford the cost of internet data. It is again clear from the results that about 90.1% of students are not satisfied with e-learning and its associated challenges. From the positive perception model, students held the view that e-learning technology in the COVID-19 era is positive regardless of the challenges. On the other hand, level 300 students, and Moodle VClass platform users express a high negative perception over the use of e-learning technology. It is clear from this study that further investments and contingency plans are needed to develop a resilient education system that supports electronic and distance learning and shapes the perception and acceptance of students. University managers and the Education Ministry should formulate post-COVID-19 strategies to promote e-learning in a developing country like Ghana.


Sarpong, S. A., Dwomoh, G., Boakye, E. K., & Ofosua-Adjei, I. (2022). Online Teaching and Learning Under COVID-19 Pandemic; Perception of University Students in Ghana. European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 3(1), e02203.


  1. Aboagye, E., Yawson, J. A., & Appiah, K. N. (2020). COVID-19 and e-learning the challenges of students in tertiary institutions in Ghana. Social Education Research, 2(1), 109-115.
  2. Adarkwah, M. A. (2021). I’m not against online teaching, but what about us? ICT in Ghana post-COVID-19. Education and Information Technologies, 26, 1665-1685.
  3. Akuratiya, D. A., & Meddage, D. N. R. (2020). Students’ perception of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A survey study of IT students. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 4(9), 775-778.
  4. Alfraih, M. M., & Alanezi, F. S. (2016). Accounting students’ perceptions of effective faculty attributes. Journal of International Education in Business, 9, 123-142.
  5. Alhabeeb, A., & Rowley, J. (2018). E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic staff and students. Computers & Education, 127, 1-12.
  6. Al-Qirim, N., Rouibah, K., Tarhini, A., Serhani, M. A., Yammahi, A. R., & Yammahi, M. A. (2018). Towards a personality understanding of information technology students and their IT learning in UAE university. Education and Information Technologies, 23, 29-40.
  7. Antwi, S., Bansah, A. K., & Franklin, T. (2018). The information technology challenges in teaching senior high school geography in Ghana. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology, 6(1), 16-37.
  8. Anyorigya, D. A. (2020). COVID-19: Halt challenge-ridden online learning in universities – NUGS to Government.
  9. Asunka, S. (2008). Online learning in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa: Ghanaian university students’ experiences and perceptions. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-23.
  10. Bougie, R., & Sekaran, U. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (7th Ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  11. Cromwell, A. (2020). Education Ministry set to release an online learning platform for senior high schools.
  12. Delen, E., & Liew, J. (2016). The use of interactive environments to promote self-regulation in online learning: A literature review. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 15(1), 24-33.
  13. Dodge, T. M., Mitchell, M. F., & Mensch, J. M. (2009). Student retention in athletic training education programs. Journal of Athletic Training, 44(2), 197-207.
  14. Garrison, D. R. (2017). E-learning in the 21st century: A community of inquiry framework for research and practice (3rd Ed.). Routledge/Taylor and Francis.
  15. Gelles, L. A., Lord, S. M., Hoople, G. D., Chen, D. A., & Mejia, J. A. (2020). Compassionate flexibility and self-discipline: Student adaptation to emergency remote teaching in an integrated engineering energy course during COVID-19. Education Sciences, 10(11).
  16. Gupta, M. M., Jankie, S., Pancholi, S. S., Talukdar, D., Sahu, P. K., & Sa, B. (2020). Asynchronous environment assessment: A pertinent option for medical and allied health profession education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Education Sciences, 10(12), 352.
  17. Hadullo, K., Oboko, R., & Omwenga, E. (2018). Status of e-learning quality in Kenya: Case of Jomo Kenyatta University of agriculture and technology postgraduate students. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 19(1), 138-159.
  18. Hailes, S., & Reza H. (2002). The digital university—Building a learning community. Springer.
  19. Hamajoda, A. (2018). Towards a topology for ICT and e-learning in Nigerian rural public primary schools.
  20. Kizilcec, R. F., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., & Maldonado, J. J. (2017). Self-regulated learning strategies predict learner behavior and goal attainment in massive open online courses. Computers in Education, 104, 18-33.
  21. Lee, Y., Nelder, J. A., & Pawitan, Y. (2018). Generalized linear models with random effects: Unified analysis via H-likelihood. Routledge.
  22. Li, C., & Lalani, F. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how.
  23. Luna, J. M., Castro, C., & Romero, C. (2017). MDM tool: A data mining framework integrated into Moodle. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 25(1), 90-102.
  24. Maphosa, V. (2021). Factors influencing student’s perceptions towards e-learning adoption during COVID-19 pandemic: A developing country context. European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02109.
  25. Maphosa, V., Jita, T., & Dube, B. (2020). Students’ perception and use of Moodle as the e-learning system implemented at a rural university in Zimbabwe. In EdMedia and Innovate Learning (pp. 175-182). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
  26. Mouchantaf, M. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges faced and lessons learned regarding distance learning in Lebanese higher education institutions. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 10(10), 1259-1266.
  27. Muhammad, G., Albejaidi, F. M., & Akhtar, R. (2017). Challenges in the development of eLearning systems in higher education of the developing countries. London Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 17(2), 13-32.
  28. Oyediran, W. O, Omoare, A. M., Owoyemi, M. A., Adejobi, A. O., & Fasasi, R. B. (2020). Prospects and limitations of e-learning application in private tertiary institutions amidst COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. Heliyon, 6(11), 5450-5457.
  29. Patterson, B., & McFadden, C. (2009). Attrition in online and campus degree programs. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(2), 1-8.
  30. Piña, A. A., Lowell, V. L., & Bruce, R. H. (2018). Leading and managing e-learning. Springer.
  31. Ramli, M., Majid, M., & Badyalina, B. (2020). Impeding factors towards the effectiveness of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic among social. International Journal of Learning and Development, 10(4), 37-49.
  32. Sarpong, S. A. (2020). We want to go back to school; 93% of final year university students demand. Daily Heritage Newspaper,
  33. Sarpong, S. A., Avuglah, R. K., & Nsowah-Nuamah, N. N. N. (2020). Application of joint generalized linear models in determining physical support factors that influence crop yield in Northern Ghana. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(4), 124-130.
  34. Sarpong, S. A., Donkoh, R. F., Konnuba, J. K., Ohene-Agyei, C., & Lee, Y. (2021). Analysis of PM2. 5, PM10, and total suspended particle exposure in the tema metropolitan area of Ghana. Atmosphere, 12(6), 700.
  35. Sarpong, S. A., Sarpong, A. K., & Lee, Y. (2021). A model for determining predictors of the MUAC in acute malnutrition in Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3792.
  36. Solangi, Z. A., Shahrani, F. A., & Pandhiani, S. M. (2018). Factors affecting successful implementation of eLearning: Study of colleges and institutes sector RCJ Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(6), 223-230.
  37. Sue, C., Hudson, A., & Steel, J. (2003). The emperor’s new clothes: Globalization and e-learning in higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24, 39-53.
  38. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th Ed.). Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.
  39. Tam, G., & El-Azar, D. (2020). 3 ways the coronavirus pandemic could reshape education.
  40. Tarhini, A., Hone, K., & Liu, X. (2014). The effects of individual differences on e-learning users’ behavior in developing countries: A structural equation model. Computers in Human Behaviour, 41, 153-163.
  41. Tarhini, A., Masa’deh, R. E., Al-Busaidi, K. A., Mohammed, A. B., & Maqableh, M. (2017). Factors influencing students’ adoption of e-learning: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of International Education in Business, 10(2), 164-182.
  42. Terras, M. M., & Ramsay, J. (2015). Massive open online courses (MOOCs): Insights and challenges from a psychological perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 472-487.
  43. Tetteh, G. A. (2016). Effects of business school student’s study time on the learning process. Journal of International Education in Business, 9(2), 90-110.
  44. Turban, E., David K., Lee, J. K., Liang, T.-P., & Turban, D. C. (2015). E-commerce: Mechanisms, platforms, and tools. Springer Cham.
  45. UNESCO. (2012). ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa (ICTeTSA). Addis Ababa UNESCO-IICBA.
  46. UNESCO. (2020). COVID-19 educational disruption and response.
  47. Vidakis, N., & Charitakis, S. (2018). Designing the learning process: The IOLAOS platform. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Subject-Oriented Business Process Management (pp. 1-11).
  48. Yvonne, N. (2016). MIT open course ware celebrates 15 years of open sharing.