Research Article

Facing COVID-19 through Emergency Online Education Anchored in Khan’s Framework: Case of Philippine Teachers in Xi’an, China

Karen Joy Brillo Talidong 1, Cathy Mae Dabi Toquero 2 *
More Detail
1 School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, CHINA2 College of Education, Mindanao State University, General Santos City, PHILIPPINES* Corresponding Author
European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(1), 2021, e02104,
OPEN ACCESS   3629 Views   2341 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


COVID-19 affected not only the lifestyle and socioeconomic conditions of the people worldwide but also the governing affairs of the process of education. To limit the transmission of COVID-19 in the educational sector, teachers worldwide immediately diverted from face-to-face education to a virtual-based education. This abrupt paradigm shift in education posits a challenge to the teachers who are accustomed to the conventional settings as they embark to emergency online teaching classes. Although distance education is a normalcy in many of the institutions globally, it is still new to the context of the Philippine teachers. In this account, an empirical study on the experiences of the Philippine teachers in Xi’an, China was explored to examine the benefits, challenges, and process in the implementation of emergency online education. Results revealed that emergency online teaching fosters benefits to the teachers and learners during this emergency situation. However, the teachers experience challenges dealing with technical issues, lack of instructional design, and other factors which disrupt emergency online education. This article offers positive and negative standpoints of the application of emergency online teaching to address the unprecedented educational issues brought by the pandemic.


Talidong, K. J. B., & Toquero, C. M. D. (2021). Facing COVID-19 through Emergency Online Education Anchored in Khan’s Framework: Case of Philippine Teachers in Xi’an, China. European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(1), e02104.


  1. Abdulamir, A. S., & Hafidh, R. R. (2020). The Possible Immunological Pathways for the Variable Immunopathogenesis of COVID—19 Infections among Healthy Adults, Elderly and Children. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 17(4), em202.
  2. Affouneh, S., Salha, S., & Khlaif, Z. (2020). Designing Quality E-Learning Environments for Emergency Remote Teaching in Coronavirus Crisis. Interdisciplinary Journal Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences, 11(2), 135-137.
  3. Bao, W. (2020). COVID-19 and online teaching in higher education: A case study of Peking University. Human Behavior and Emerging Techologies, 2(2), 113-115.
  4. Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i-vi.
  5. Chen, L.-L. (2016). A Model for Effective Online Instructional Design. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 6(2), 2303-2308.
  6. Duncan, H. E., & Young, S. (2009). Online pedagogy and practice: Challenges and strategies. The Researcher, 22(1), 17-32. Retrieved from
  7. Er, S. (2013, October). Using Total Physical Response Method in Early Childhood Foreign Language Teaching Environments. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1766-1768.
  8. Gewin, V. (2020, March 24). Five tips for moving teaching online as COVID-19 takes hold. Career Feature, Nature. Retrieved from
  9. Gondauri, D., Mikautadze, E., & Batiashvili, M. (2020). Research on COVID-19 Virus Spreading Statistics based on the Examples of the Cases from Different Countries. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 17(4), em209.
  10. Har, A. L., Abidin, M. J., & Saibon, J. S. (2019). The benefits and drawbacks of using tablet-based digital storytelling in vocabulary learning among Malaysian young English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 34, 17-47.
  11. Ho, M. K., Littman, M. L., Cushman, F., & Austerweil, J. L. (2015). Teaching with Rewards and Punishments: Reinforcement or Communication?, 920-925. Retrieved from
  12. Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T. & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning (Blog post). Retrieved from
  13. Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2016). Issues and Challenges for Teaching Successful Online Courses in Higher Education: A Literature Review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4-29.
  14. Kennepohl, D. (2020). Editorial. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(2), i-iii.
  15. Khan, B. H. (Ed.). (2005). Managing e-learning: Design, delivery, implementation, and evaluation. IGI Global.
  16. Lin, L. (2002). English Education in Present-day China. Retrieved from
  17. Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492-505.
  18. Palvia, S., Aeron, P., Gupta, P., Mahapatra, D., Parida, R., Rosner, R., & Sindhi, S. (2018). Online Education: Worldwide Status, Challenges, Trends, and Implications, Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 21(4), 233-241.
  19. Posey, G., Burgess, T., Eason, M., & Jones, Y. (2010). The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Virtual Classroom and the Role of the Teacher. Retrieved from
  20. Quevillon, K. (2018, January 31). Online Teaching: 4 Unique Challenges and How to Solve Them. Retrieved from
  21. Reonieri, D. C. (2006, December 05). Optimizing the Number of Students for an Effective Online Discussion Board Learning Experience. Retrieved from
  22. Sorensen, C. (2014, December). Classrooms Without Walls: A Comparison of Instructor Performance in online Courses Differing in Class Size. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(4), 569-576.
  23. Talidong, K.J. (2020). Implementation of emergency remote teaching (ERT) among Philippine teachers in Xi’an, China. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 196-201. Retrieved from
  24. Toquero, C. M. (2020a). Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Philippine Context. Pedagogical Research, 5(4), em0063.
  25. Toquero, C. M. D. (2020b). Emergency remote teaching amid COVID-19: The turning point. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 185-188. Retrieved from
  26. UNESCO (2020). Global Monitoring of School Closures caused by COVID-19. Retrieved from
  27. Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Yang, L., & Wang, C. (2020). Suspending Classes Without Stopping Learning: China’s Education Emergency Management Policy in the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Risk Financial Management. 13(3), 55.